Document Type

Honors Project

Publication Date



Music performance anxiety (MPA) often keeps musicians from performing the way they would like to in performance situations. Because of its relation to social anxiety disorder, treatments for MPA can be informed by theories of social anxiety disorder. Clark and Wells’ model (1995) and Rapee and Heimberg’s model (1997) suggests that those who have higher levels of social anxiety view past social experiences from an observer perspective, i.e., an external or third person viewpoint. The aim of the current study was to explore the extent to which MPA is associated with mental imagery using an observer perspective among college student musicians. Participants (n = 21; 67% women; 71% white) were recruited from the Lawrence University Conservatory of Music and sent a survey to complete within 48 hours of a performance asking them to report on the performance and how they saw it. Results indicated that MPA was not associated with the observer perspective as hypothesized; however, this is most likely due to the small number of participants. Results also showed a relationship between MPA levels and trait rumination which adds to the literature on rumination as a transdiagnostic risk factor.

Level of Honors

cum laude




Lori Hilt

Available for download on Thursday, June 05, 2025

Included in

Psychology Commons